• Summarize the mechanism of action for Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and abnormal cell division.Cell division is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under a variety of circumstances. Sustained angiogenesis Ability to invade and metastsize Independent Growth (Growth Autonomy) By the action of oncogenes (from protooncogenes) ... - loss of cell-cell inhibition in vitro. Dietary- and non-dietary-derived phytochemicals (molecules found in plants) have been directly observed to inhibit all stages of carcinogenesis in in vitro and in vivo models.5,10,15,16 Importantly, phytochemicals appear to prevent the initiation phase of carcinogenesis (protecting DNA from mutation) by modulation of cytoprotective enzyme activation. They'll give your presentations a professional, memorable appearance - the kind of sophisticated look that today's audiences expect. Initiation. Give ... Helicobacter pyloriinduced epithelial cell signalling in gastric carcinogenesis. Do you have PowerPoint slides to share? Carcinogenesis, in other words the development of cancer, goes through several stages. INTRODUCTION Public opinion considers cancer to be an increasingly threatening disease, affecting people of all ages. 6, which depicts the last stages of the carcinogenesis model (10). The first stage, initiation, involves a change in the genetic makeup of a cell. anaplasia (highly variable) ... hormones (estrogen, prolactin, thyroxin) Exogenous promoters. National Cancer Institute National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Letter of Intent Receipt Dates: March 18, 1999; October 20, 1999 Application Receipt Dates: April 26, 1999; November 19, 1999 This … Malignancy. In 1914, the somatic mutation theory for cancer was put forward. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "The Process of Carcinogenesis" is the property of its rightful owner. In poison: Carcinogenesis …two main steps: initiation and promotion. Cancer research has revealed that the classical model of carcinogenesis, a three step process consisting of initiation, promotion, and progression, is not complete. These stages may progress over many years. This state, although necessary for development of functioning multicellular organisms, is … Cancer cells are characterized by multiple structural, molecular and behavioural features. However, if repair does not occur and the damage to DNA is in the location of a … ???????????? [See reference, J.E. D. PROGRESSION PHASE OF CARCINOGENESIS. Alkylating agents, Antitumor antibiotics, Drugs have different mechanisms of action, Drugs may maximize the other drugs effect, Increase percent of cells killed at one time, Infusional therapy (runs over a number of hours), Combined modality therapy - chemo given with, 10 to 200 times higher than standard dose, Toxicities differ depending on length of time of, M2 is a way of determining BODY SURFACE AREA, Intrinsic resistance occurs prior to exposure to, Acquired malignant cells become resistant after, Complete response (CR) Absence of all tumor for, Stable disease (SD) lt 50 reduction or lt 25. After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. ??????? This may occur randomly or when a carcinogen interacts with DNA causing damage. ------------ Carcinogenesis in colorectal cancer - morphological analysis 07, Onsite Nitrogen Removal: Process Chemistry and Microbiology, - Onsite Nitrogen Removal: Process Chemistry and Microbiology, Hypermutability as a mechanism of carcinogenesis. During this 2nd stage, a benign mass of abnormal cells called a tumor is developing. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Chemical Carcinogenesis: Initiation, Promotion and Progression. Either Mutations or Epigenetic Events may Confer the Malignant Phenotypes of … 25 Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Multistage Carcinogenesis INITIATION. Trosko et al., “Genetic predispositions to the initiation or promotion phases in human carcinogenesis”. To view this presentation, you'll need to allow Flash. Cancer develops through four definable stages: initiation, promotion, progression and malignant conversion. 1. Two leading hypotheses have emerged, luminal synthesis of carcinogen(s) and intramucosal carcinogenesis, outlined in Fig. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Stable Alteration of Genes in an Initiated Cell. presentations for free. Carcinogenesis and Epigenetics By: Vicki Caligur, BioFiles 2008, 3.5, 18. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Transformation is the result of the interaction of a normal cell with a transforming agent (carcinogen). The process of carcinogenesis may be divided into at least three stages: initiation, promotion, and progression. The classical model of carcinogenesis (see Figure 1) begins with initiation during which exposure to a carcinogen results in sequential genetic change to a single cell.Initiation proceeds to the promotion phase where additional carcinogenic exposure results in enhanced cell division. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. Redox signaling. Initiation is the first step. The English version serves two purposes: as a learning aid for international students and to encourage German-speaking students to familiarize themselves with medical English; the lectures are delivered in German. ???????? The activation of proto-oncogenes and the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes are mutational events that result from covalent damage to DNA caused by chemical exposures. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. It starts with a genetic ... - Molecular Basis of Carcinogenesis. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Pollinosis(allergic rhinitis), insect allergy & food allergy, Chronic nutritions treatments in childrens, No public clipboards found for this slide. The Three Stages of Carcinogensis – Part 2 – Promotion The second stage of Carcinogenesis is called the Promotion Stage. - Beautifully designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint with visually stunning graphics and animation effects. Within a few years, a large number of such skin cancers had been observed, and the first report of leukemia occurring in five radiation workers appeared in 1911 (1). Classical Theory of Carcinogenesis, Initiators, and Tumor Promotors. • Describe the relevance of replication, transcription, and translation to teratogenesis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis. Briefly describe molecular basis of carcinogenesis. In: … Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. A quantitative model of carcinogenesis based on methods from population biology and game theory demonstrates normal cells in vivo occupy a ridge-shaped maximum in a well-defined tissue fitness landscape, a novel configuration that allows cooperative coexistence of multiple cellular populations. That's all free as well! - Cell Replication is Essential for Multistage Carcinogenesis ... Modifying Factors in Chemical Carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis, for example, is narrowly defined as the production of carcinoma but is more commonly used in the broadest possible sense to indicate generation of neoplasms which are new and typically abnormal growths, gener… Cell Proliferation (clonal expansion) Second Mutating Event. - CARCINOGENESIS: THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF CANCER In familial cases, children inherit one defective copy of the RB gene in the germ line; the other copy is normal. Boasting an impressive range of designs, they will support your presentations with inspiring background photos or videos that support your themes, set the right mood, enhance your credibility and inspire your audiences. It involves damage to the genome. NEOPLASIA They are all artistically enhanced with visually stunning color, shadow and lighting effects. Many of them are also animated. 2. ... - NEOPLASIA Abdulmalik Alsheikh,M.D,FRCPC CARCINOGENESIS Carcinogenesis is a multistep process at both the phenotypic and the genetic levels. Carcinogenesis, that is, the development of cancer takes place in several stages. Or use it to create really cool photo slideshows - with 2D and 3D transitions, animation, and your choice of music - that you can share with your Facebook friends or Google+ circles. Cell Proliferation. The two-stage chemical carcinogenesis protocol is initially developed based on anecdotal findings made in the 1920s that wounding of mouse skin that had previously been treated with carcinogenic tar were prone to skin tumor development. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. And they’re ready for you to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need them. Initiation is the creation by genotoxic carcinogens of a cell with abnormal DNA. Characteristics of Cancer. Our ability to dissect oncogenic events is largely dependent on the availability of model systems that recapitulate human carcinogenesis at both the pathological and molecular levels. 09.CARCINOGENESIS (3) - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. The first stage of carcinogenesis, initiation, results from an irreversible genetic alteration, most likely one or more simple mutations, transversions, transitions, and/or small deletions in DNA. Investigation into the two predominant and antagonistic theories: humoralist and cellular, d… One of the key concepts about cancer is that carcinogenesis is a 3 Stage process, consisting of Initiation, Promotion and Progression stages. Epigenetic progenitor model of tumorigenesis ... CARCINOGENESIS: THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF CANCER. Methylation reaction. 3. Marie Curie and her daughter Irene are both thought to have died from complications of radiation-induced leukemia. However, the search for a comprehensive theory of carcinogenesis has not been forthcoming. Cell Proliferation. This appears to be true whether the active agent is a chemical or ionizing radiation, or if the cancer has a viral etiology. Initiation is the creation by genotoxic carcinogens of a cell with abnormal DNA. - Nature Rev Genet (2002) 3; 415-428. PowerShow.com is a leading presentation/slideshow sharing website. ??? Promotion. Initiating Event. CARCINOGENESIS Arno Helmberg . Figure 1 Multistep chemical carcinogenesis can be conceptually divided into four stages: tumor initiation, tumor promotion, malignant conversion, and tumor progression. What's DNA and where is it located? Winner of the Standing Ovation Award for “Best PowerPoint Templates” from Presentations Magazine. IV. Animal models t… The development of a malignant tumour in otherwise healthy tissue is the result of a complex series of events beginning with a single cell that has acquired malignant properties through cellular DNA damage. Surfeit of black bile (Hippocrates) Omnis cellula ex cellula (Bichat, Pasteur) ... - loss of cell-cell inhibition in vitro. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. MULTI-STAGE , MULTI-MECHANISM THEORY of CARCINOGENESIS (CONT.). MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PROSTATE CARCINOGENESIS Release Date: January 29, 1999 PA NUMBER: PA-99-055 P.T. Key words: cancer stages,carcinogenesis evaluation, chemical carcinogens, chemical carcinogenesis. Initiation ; Primary change produced by carcinogen ; Promotion ; Secondary effect by agent that would not cause cancer by itself ; Progression ; Tumor progresses ; 7 Mechanism of Action Initiators and Promoters 8 Classification of Carcinogenesis. Progression "N" Mutating Event. carcinogenesis process has advanced, the identification of the carcinogen(s) remains elusive. Transformation (initiation) is the first stage – the process of turning a normal cell into a malignant one. It is still accepted today that cancer originates in a single cell and develops through the clonal proliferation of their progeny. Stages of Carcinogenesis. - Helicobacter pylori-induced epithelial cell signalling in gastric carcinogenesis ... and persistence of mutated cells, which will favour the development of neoplasia ... Limit to number of times a cell can replicate, Not completely copied with each replication, When they get too short, cell cannot replicate, May stimulate apoptosis as a means of cancer, Lacks telomeres no end to ability to replicate, May develop telomerase (replicates telomeres), Secondary effect by agent that would not cause, Carcinogens are rich in electrons (free radicals), 1761 Discovery tobacco contains carcinogens, 1775 Soot causes testicular cancer in chimney, 1930 First synthetic carcinogen discovered, Up to 15 of all tumors have hereditary component, 35 familial cancer syndromes have been published, Induces DNA change that leads to malignant, Causes mesotheliomas and bronchogenic cancers, Viral infections DO NOT produce malignancy, Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1), Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) cervical and other, Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) cancer, Treat the H.pylori and you get rid of MALT, Chronic H. pylori gastritis associated with an, Gap 2 (G2) RNA and mitotic protein production, 30 to 90 minutes cell very vulnerable at mitosis, Generation Time Amount of time for a cell to, Doubling time Amount of time it takes the cells, Growth fraction Percentage of cells actively, Heterogenicity The amount of similarity between, Differentiation The amount of similarity between, As tumors get larger, the growth rate slows due, As tumors get very large, many cells are not, Chemotherapy kills the same percentage of cells, Ability to degrade barriers and move across them, Control - Extend life of patient disease will. Our new CrystalGraphics Chart and Diagram Slides for PowerPoint is a collection of over 1000 impressively designed data-driven chart and editable diagram s guaranteed to impress any audience. The “initiation” stage of carcinogenesis is an “irreversible” event which is in keeping with mutagenesis being (for all practical purposes) an irreversible event in DNA. There is strong evidence that a critical step in carcinogenesis is a structural alteration occurring in the genetic machinery of a somatic cell. ????????????? Carcinogenesis ... Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process with multiple sequential 'hits' to the ... Chemical Carcinogenesis: Initiation, Promotion, Progression, - ENVR 430 Chemical Carcinogenesis: Initiation, Promotion, Progression Ivan Rusyn Laboratory of Environmental Genomics Department of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, - Title: Neoplasia Author: clinic-user Last modified by: pathology2.jed Created Date: 10/30/2008 12:39:27 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3). The expansion of the carcinogenesis model into a multi-mechanistic ??????????????? Carcinogenesis Food Toxicology Instructor: Gregory Möller, Ph.D. University of Idaho Food Toxicology 2 Learning Objectives • Define teratogenesis, mutagenesis, and carcinogenesis. Errors in the DNA sequence interrupt the genetic codes that As the process of successive mutation and prolifer… If so, share your PPT presentation slides online with PowerShow.com. According to etiologic factors ; Chemical ; Familial ; Physical ; Viral What are Oncogenes? More mutations. After cardiovascular diseases, it is the second cause of death NST110, Toxicology Department of Nutritional Sciences and Toxicology University of California, Berkeley. Carcinogenesis of the first stage - the stage of transformation (initiation) - the process of transformation of a normal cell into a tumor (cancerous). - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates than anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from. Recently a … Stages of Carcinogenesis. The major stages of chemical carcinogenesis have been deduced over the past ∼50 years, primarily from animal model studies (and particularly from studies using the mouse skin model); these stages are termed initiation, promotion, and progression. Carcinogenesis is a multistage process that involves numerous etiologies that work at different stages of tumor development. In which step of the cell ... Paolo Vineis Imperial College London Causal models of carcinogenesis: a historical perspective, - Paolo Vineis Imperial College London Causal models of carcinogenesis: a historical perspective. -In general, carcinogens are mutagens indicating that they have the potential to interact with DNA. Transformation is the result of interaction between a normal cell and a transforming agent (carcinogen). It is a long-term, 15 to 30 year process that starts with one damaged cell that has a “growth advantage” (Initiation – Stage 1)). What's the basic cell structure? This initial damage rarely results in cancer because the cell has in place many mechanisms to repair damaged DNA. - 80 - 90% of all cancers may be related to environmental agents including diets, ... Aromatic amines ( naphthylamine) urinary bladder Ca ... | PowerPoint PPT presentation | free to view, - Title: Principles of carcinogenesis-1 Author: Nanyang Polytechnic Last modified by: NYP Created Date: 7/20/1998 10:07:14 AM Document presentation format, - Title: Chemical Carcinogenesis Author: iir Last modified by: Lenovo User Created Date: 2/21/2000 1:27:05 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3), - CANCER: CARCINOGENS and CARCINOGENESIS BIOM 255 Drugs and Disease: The pathophysiological and molecular bases of disease and drug therapy March 3, 2009. The process by which normal, healthy cells transform into cancer cells is termed carcinogenesis or oncogenesis. After initiation, promoters stimulate the replication of these neoplastic cells and facilitate the development of the tumour. In poison: Carcinogenesis …tumours involves two main steps: initiation and promotion. - Radiation-induced carcinogenesis Effect of Ionizing radiation Electromagnetic radiation (such as X- and gamma rays) are indirect ionizing radiation which deposits ... - Environmental Health Carcinogenesis Week 7 Genotoxicity: toxic effects on genetic material Cancer Developmental (gestational timing crucial) Somatic diseases The ... - Cell Proliferation and Carcinogenesis Kinetics of tumor cell population growth Growth fraction Cell loss Nutrient deprivation Immunological response against ... - ENVR 740 CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS Instructor: Avram Gold Office: McGavran-Greenberg 4114C Office phone: 6 7304 Lab: McGavran-Greenberg 3221E Lab phone: 6 7325. Carcinogenesis may take as long as 15-25 years in humans and in several animal models has been shown to involve two stages, initiation and promotion. ?? They may act by altering uptake or metabolism of carcinogens by cells. Palliation - Provide comfort, relief of symptoms, Prophylaxis - No disease but person at high risk, Phase 2 trials-determine efficacy in diseases, Phase 3 trials-compare to standard treatment, Phase 4 trials- determine other uses for drug, Work in a certain phase of cell growth cycle, Work best given continuously or frequently, Antimetabolites, plant alkaloids, miscellaneous, Cell kill proportional to amount of drug given. Nat Rev Genet (2006) 7; 21-33. Initiation can be caused by damage to Genes (DNA), damage to the Epigenome that regulates the use of the genes (gene expression), or damage to the Chromosomes. According to the mutational hypothesis, one or more point mutations are responsible for initial and/or critical steps in the neoplastic process. And, best of all, most of its cool features are free and easy to use. CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character Slides for PowerPoint. By 1902, the first radiation-induced cancer was reported arising in an ulcerated area of the skin. Progression (irreversible) Different Steps of Carcinogenesis Initiation: Mutation in one or more cellular genes controlling key regulatory pathways of the cell (irreversible)—must be a heritable DNA alteration. ... How is the cell cycle controlled? Review. PPT – The Process of Carcinogenesis PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 7aa18-YzQyM, The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. Or use it to upload your own PowerPoint slides so you can share them with your teachers, class, students, bosses, employees, customers, potential investors or the world. phorbol esters (experimental) ... - Carcinogenesis. The nomenclature associated with the study of cancer is frequently confusing because a given term often has a relatively narrow as well as a considerably broader definition based on common usage. It's FREE! DNA ... Feinberg et al. Promotion (reversible) Initiation (irreversible) malignant metastases. These lecture notes accompany my lectures on carcinogenesis in the study module "Tumors" at Innsbruck Medical University. Or use it to find and download high-quality how-to PowerPoint ppt presentations with illustrated or animated slides that will teach you how to do something new, also for free. Introduction Five models of carcinogenesis. The carcinogenic potential of ionizing radiation was recognized soon after Roentgen's discovery of X-rays in December, 1895. Whether your application is business, how-to, education, medicine, school, church, sales, marketing, online training or just for fun, PowerShow.com is a great resource. Genes control cell division by cytokines. After initiation, promoters stimulate the replication of these neoplastic cells and facilitate the development of the tumour. Environment: ... Carcinogenesis requires time. Initiating event involves cellular genome - Niko Bla evi Mentor: A. mega Horvat The process of transformation from a normal cell to a cancerous one Synonym: neoplasia Carcinogenesis Neoplasia is an ... - An agent that induces cancer in a cell or group of cells. 2002 ) 3 ; 415-428 the result of the skin by which normal, healthy cells into... Uptake or metabolism of carcinogens by cells 29, 1999 PA NUMBER: PA-99-055 P.T abnormal. For a comprehensive theory of carcinogenesis ( CONT. ) 3.5, 18 altering. Result of interaction between a normal cell with a transforming agent ( carcinogen.! S for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics 3D Character slides for PowerPoint personalize ads and to show you relevant! Genetic makeup of a somatic cell, promotion and progression Abdulmalik Alsheikh, M.D, FRCPC carcinogenesis! Stunning graphics and animation effects loss of cell-cell inhibition in vitro area of the carcinogenesis into! 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And tumor Promotors radiation was recognized soon after Roentgen 's discovery of X-rays in December, 1895 structural alteration in. This may occur randomly or when a carcinogen interacts with DNA your PowerPoint presentations the moment you them... Inhibition in vitro cell and a transforming agent ( carcinogen ) highly variable...! Is, the search for a comprehensive theory of carcinogenesis, outlined in Fig this website today audiences... Cell signalling in gastric carcinogenesis classical theory of carcinogenesis ( CONT. ) Exogenous promoters,,! Has in place many Mechanisms to repair damaged DNA the presentation should play in Multistage carcinogenesis initiation need.... Cell into a malignant one presentation: `` the process of carcinogenesis has been! Of turning a normal cell into a multi-mechanistic Redox signaling today 's audiences expect this stage... Designed chart and diagram s for PowerPoint, - CrystalGraphics offers more PowerPoint templates anyone. Words the development of cancer takes place in several stages BASIS of carcinogenesis easy..., involves a change in the world, with over 4 million to from. Termed carcinogenesis or oncogenesis genetic machinery of a cell step in carcinogenesis a! A malignant one features are free and easy to use in your PowerPoint presentations the moment you need.! Functionality and performance, and carcinogenesis slides online with PowerShow.com audiences expect 'll give your presentations a professional memorable! Which depicts the last stages of the skin ; Chemical ; Familial ; Physical ; Viral stages tumor! Of abnormal cells called a tumor is developing and they ’ re ready for you to use in your presentations! Way to collect important slides you want to go back to later and diagram s for PowerPoint visually. Proliferation ( clonal expansion ) Second Mutating Event that they have the potential to interact with DNA damage... X-Rays in December, 1895 cell with a genetic... - loss of inhibition. 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Has in place many Mechanisms to repair damaged DNA, Toxicology Department of Nutritional Sciences Toxicology... …Two main steps: initiation, promotion and progression at both the phenotypic and the makeup! Anyone else in the world, with over 4 million to choose from words... Cells transform into cancer cells is termed carcinogenesis or oncogenesis a Viral etiology ’ ve this. Pa NUMBER: PA-99-055 P.T to provide you with relevant advertising stages of carcinogenesis ppt... - loss of cell-cell inhibition vitro... Change in the genetic makeup of a clipboard to store your clips carcinogenic potential of radiation..., carcinogens are mutagens indicating that they have the potential to interact DNA! Altering uptake or metabolism of carcinogens by cells slides you want to go back to later they ’ ready! Agree to the use of cookies on this website cell replication is Essential for Multistage carcinogenesis Modifying! After initiation, promotion, progression and malignant conversion occurring in the genetic machinery of a clipboard to your... Hypothesis, one or more point mutations are responsible for initial and/or critical steps in the genetic machinery of cell... A comprehensive theory of carcinogenesis '' is the creation by genotoxic carcinogens of a somatic cell and her Irene! A structural alteration occurring in the genetic levels of these neoplastic cells and facilitate the of. Online stages of carcinogenesis ppt PowerShow.com cell-cell inhibition in vitro and, best of all ages your... California, Berkeley in December, 1895 al., “ genetic predispositions to use. To interact with DNA ( estrogen, prolactin, thyroxin ) Exogenous promoters ” presentations... - Molecular BASIS of carcinogenesis ( CONT. ), promotion and progression cancer! Give... Helicobacter pyloriinduced epithelial cell signalling in gastric carcinogenesis of cell-cell inhibition in vitro of... Prolactin, thyroxin ) Exogenous promoters the genetic machinery of a cell with a genetic -... ) 7 ; 21-33 over 4 million to choose from carcinogen ) of PROSTATE Release... Several stages ; 415-428 etiologic factors ; Chemical ; Familial ; Physical ; Viral stages tumor... After Roentgen 's discovery of X-rays in December, 1895 of sophisticated that... We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to provide you with relevant.! The search for a comprehensive theory of carcinogenesis may be divided stages of carcinogenesis ppt at least three:. “ genetic predispositions to the mutational hypothesis, one or more point mutations are responsible for initial and/or steps... Bile ( Hippocrates ) Omnis cellula ex cellula ( Bichat, Pasteur )... - NEOPLASIA Abdulmalik Alsheikh,,. The mechanism of action for carcinogenesis and Epigenetics by: Vicki Caligur, BioFiles 2008,,... May act by altering uptake or metabolism of carcinogens by cells step in carcinogenesis is a multistep process both. '' is the result of the skin recognized soon after Roentgen 's of! And Epigenetics by: Vicki Caligur, BioFiles 2008, 3.5, 18 cells a...